About the Ancient Web


We have finally launched an updated version of our website and store – thanks for your patience!  Our new site features introductory info about the ancient world’s great civilizations including Ancient Africa,  Ancient Europe, Ancient Asia & Oceania, & the Ancient Americas, a People & Places section,  Image Galleries, our Blog and a Shop.

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The Ancient Web was born out of our love of history and a deep desire to share the cultural heritage of our ancestors with today’s generations.

Since we launched our site in 1999, the internet has seen an open knowledge revolution. Resources once only available directly from university libraries and museums are now available to everyone. Our mission is to, not only to provide introductory content on a range of historical topics, but also to serve as a bridge to the resources. As our site continues to evolve,  we welcome your feedback and collaboration.

Site Credits

The Ancient Web strives to present information as accurately as possible. However, we can not absolutely verify all of our of the content. We are human, and the very nature of our content makes it subject to revisionism on both a personal and topical level. But please trust us when we say that we have done everything we can to be impartial and present information in a way that benefits those who wish to learn. What we can guarantee is that we will strive to provide primary sources for references and address any accuracy issues that may arise.

The Ancient Web strives to respect intellectual property. If you feel that we are violating a copyright by not giving proper accreditation please let us know. We will strive to resolve any issues in a timely manner.

Additional Resources

Wherever possible, we have added links to related content and media toward the bottom of the page.

Educational Resources

This area of the site provides links to online resources and museums.

Archeology Bibliography

Binford, Lewis R.
In pursuit of the future. 1986. pp. 459-479 in Meltzer, David J.; Fowler, Donald D., and Sabloff, Jeremy A., editors. American Archaeology past and future. Washington, D.C.: Smithson Institution Press.

Browman, David L. and Douglas R. Givens. 1996. Stratigraphic excavation: The first “new archaeology.” American Anthropologist 98(1):80-95.

Daniel, Glyn. 1981. A Short History of Archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson.

Daniel, Glyn. 1976. A Hundred and Fifty Years of Archaeology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Daniel, Glyn (ed.). 1981. Towards a History of Archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson.

Daniel, Glyn and Colin Renfrew. 1987. The Idea of Prehistory. New York: Columbia University Press.

David, Nicholas C.. 1992. Integrating ethnoarchaeology: A subtle realist perspective. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 11:330-359.

Fagan, Brian. 1996. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fitting, James E. 1968. Contributions to Michigan Archaeology. Halsey, John R. and Wobst, H. Martin, editors. Anthropological Papers. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.

Fitting, James E. 1973. The Development of North American Archaeology. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.

Flinn, Mark and et al. 1994. Evolution and culture turf wars: History, mind, and/or ecology? Journal of Anthropological Research 50(3):327-333.

Ford, Richard I. 1974. Northeastern Archaeology: past and future directions. Annual Review of Anthropology 3:385-413.

Hassler, Robert C. 1989. The Effects of CRM: A Sociohistorical Perspective of the Department of Anthropology, University of Nebraska at Lincoln. Plains Anthropologist 34(124):111-128.

Jaroslav, Malina and Zdenek Vasicek 1990. Archaeology Yesterday and Today: The Development of Archaeology in the Sciences and Humanities. Translated from Czechoslovakian, by Marek Zvelebil. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Junker, Klaus 1998 Research under dictatorship: the German Archaeological Institute 1929-1945. Antiquity 72:282-292.

Lyman, R. L. and Michael J. O’Brien 1999 Americanist Stratigraphic Excavation and the Measurement of Culture Change. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 6(1):55-108.

Marlowe, Greg 1999 Year One: Radiocarbon dating and American archaeology, 1947-1948. American Antiquity 64(1):9-32.

McKern, Will C. 1939. The Midwestern Taxonomic Method as an aid to archaeological culture study. American Antiquity 4(4):301-313.

Meltzer, David J., Jeremy A. Sabloff, and Donald D. Fowler, eds. 1986. American Archaeology past and future. Washington, D.C.: Smithson Institution Press.

Moore, James A. and Arthur S. Keene. 1983. Archaeological Hammers and Theories. New York: Academic Press; 1983.

Moore, John H.. 1981. Evolution and Historical Reductionism. Plains Anthropologist 26(94):261-269.

Murray, Margaret. 1963. Centenary. Antiquity 37:92-95.

Murray, Margaret. 1961. First steps in archaeology. Antiquity. 1961; 35:8-13.

Patterson, Thomas C. 1986. The last sixty years: toward a social history of Americanist Archaeology in the United States. American Anthropologist 88:7-26.

Phillips, Philip and Gordon R. Willey. 1953. Method and theory in American archaeology: An operational basis for culture-historical integration. American Anthropologist 55(5):615-633.

Redman, Charles L. 1991. In defense of the seventies–The adolescence of New Archaeology. American Anthropologist 93:295-307.

Saitta, Dean J. 1992. Radical archaeology and middle-range theory. Antiquity 66(253):886-897.

Saitta, Dean J. The poverty of philosophy in archaeology. pp. 299-304 in Moore, James A. and Keene, Arthur S., editors. Archaeological Hammers and Theories. New York: Academic Press.

Silverberg, Robert. 1964. Great Adventures in Archaeology. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Spaulding, Albert C. 1983. Archaeology Theory: 1936. pp. 19-26 In Dunnell, Robert C. and Grayson, Donald K., editors. Lulu Linear Punctated: Essays in Honor of George Irving Quimby. Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.

Stoltman, James B. 1973. The Southeastern United States. pp. 116-150 in Fitting, James E. The development of North American archaeology. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.

Tax, Thomas G. 1973. The development of American Archaeology, 1800-1879: Department of History, University of Chicago.

Trigger, Bruce G. 1991. Constraint and freedom – A new synthesis for archeological explanation. American Anthropologist 93(3):551-569.

Trigger, Bruce G. 1989. History of Archaeological Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wandsnider, LuAnn, ed. 1992. Quandaries and Quests: Visions of Archaeology’s Future. Edwardsville: Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University. (CAI Occasional Paper; 20).

Watson, Patty Jo. 1995. Archaeology, anthropology, and the culture concept. American Anthropologist 97(4):683-694.

Willey, Gordon R. and Philip Phillips. 1958. Method and theory in American Archaeology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Winslow, Diane Lynne and Wedding, Jeffrey R. 1997. Georgia Wheeler is still alive (and we have her voice on tape). Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 40(1):140-150

Wright, Henry T. 1986. The evolution of civilizations. pp. 323-365 in Meltzer, David J.; Fowler, Donald D., and Sabloff, Jeremy A., editors. American Archaeology Past and Future. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Art History Bibliography

Pollock, Griselda (ed.) (2006). Psychoanalysis and the Image. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3461-5

Mansfield, Elizabeth (2002). Art History and Its Institutions: Foundations of a Discipline. Routledge. ISBN 0415228689

Harrison, Charles, and Paul Wood. (2003). Art in Theory, 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Murray, Chris. (2003). Key Writers on Art. 2 vols, Routledge Key Guides. London: Routledge.

Harrison, Charles, Paul Wood, and Jason Gaiger. (2000). Art in Theory 1648-1815: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Harrison, Charles, Paul Wood, and Jason Gaiger. (2001). Art in theory, 1815-1900: an anthology of changing ideas. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Robinson, Hilary. (2001). Feminism-Art-Theory: An Anthology, 1968-2000. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Minor, Vernon Hyde. (2001). Art history’s history. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Pollock, G., (1999). Differencing the Canon. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06700-6

Frazier, N. (1999). The Penguin concise dictionary of art history. New York: Penguin Reference.

Adams, L. (1996). The methodologies of art: an introduction. New York, NY: IconEditions.

Nelson, R. S., & Shiff, R. (1996). Critical terms for art history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Minor, Vernon Hyde. (1994). Critical Theory of Art History. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Fitzpatrick, V. L. N. V. D. (1992). Art history: a contextual inquiry course. Point of view series. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.

Kemal, Salim, and Ivan Gaskell (1991). The Language of Art History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052144598

Carrier, D. (1991). Principles of art history writing. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Johnson, W. M. (1988). Art history: its use and abuse. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Holly, M. A. (1984). Panofsky and the foundations of art history. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Arntzen, E., & Rainwater, R. (1980). Guide to the literature of art history. Chicago: American Library Association.

Hauser, A. (1959). The philosophy of art history. New York: Knopf.

Wölfflin, H. (1915, trans. 1932). Principles of art history; the problem of the development of style in later art. [New York]: Dover Publications.

History Bibliography

Asimov, Isaac; Asimov’s Chronology of the World; Harper Collins, 1991, ISBN 0062700367.

Carr, E.H. with a new introduction by Richard J. Evans; What is History?; Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001, ISBN 0333977017.

Durant, Will & Ariel; The Lessons of History; MJF Books, (1997), ISBN 1567310249.

Evans, Richard J.; In Defence of History; W. W. Norton (2000), ISBN 0393319598.

Tosh, John; The Pursuit of History; Longman (2006), ISBN 1405823518.

Wells, H. G. (1920). The Outline of History; Volume One. New York: MacMillan.

Spodek, H. (2001). The World’s History: combined volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Parker, G. (1997). The Times Atlas of World History. London: Times Books.

The Biosphere (A Scientific American Book), San Francisco, W.H. Freeman and Co., 1970, ISBN 0-7167-0945-7. This seminal book, originally a 1970 Scientific American magazine issue, covered virtually every major concern and concept that has since been debated regarding materials and energy resources, population trends and environmental degradation.

Energy and Power (A Scientific American Book), San Francisco, W.H. Freeman and Co., 1971, ISBN 0-7167-0938-4.

Jared Diamond (1996). Guns, Germs, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies.. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-03891-2.

Fernand Braudel (1996). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20308-9.

Fernand Braudel (1973). Capitalism and Material Life, 1400-1800. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-010454-6.

Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man, Free Press, 1992, ISBN 0029109752.

Marshall Hodgson, Rethinking World History: Essays on Europe, Islam, and World History (Cambridge, 1993).

Kenneth Pomeranz, The Great Divergence: China, Europe and the Making of the Modern World Economy (Princeton, 2000).

Clive Ponting, World History: a New Perspective (London, 2000).

Ronald Wright, A Short History of Progress, Toronto, Anansi, 2004, ISBN 0-88784-706-4.

Ankerl, Guy, Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western, Geneva: INUPRESS,2000, ISBN2-88155-004-5.

Web Bibliography

This website incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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